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lacan's three stages of development

on Jan 19, 2021

Specific traumatic events (such as a primal scene, or a shopkeeper's assault) give rise to the repression on which a later event may operate in a deferred fashion. “I demand a creature of another sex, but as hideous as myself” (Shelley 99). Yet, by virtue of being differentially placed in relation to other subjects in the symbolic universe, this subject exists: "existence is here synonymous," as Slavoj Zizek cogently puts it, "with symbolization, integration into the symbolic order--only what is symbolized fully 'exists'" (136). 9 In another connection, Gerald Fogel makes the similar point that Winnicott's work "creates not a theory, but an antitheory": "Theories ordinarily explain, but Winnicott is more interested in grasping or describing the nature of personal experience, not its causes or its components. The two metaphors of movement (up/down and back/forth) both serve as supplementary rather than strictly opposite views of the interpretive process. This early childhood event, however remarkable or startling (saisissant), might appear to be arbitrarily singled out and privileged in Lacan's writings. "'She's my prisoner, you know!' Arguably, avatar creation contains fundamental concepts of Lacan's mirror stage. In a quite different context, Jacques Derrida makes a comparable claim about the allegorical purpose (or, he might say, pretension) of Lacan's seminar on Edgar Allan Poe's "The Purloined Letter" (in Šcrits, 11-61). There are many tools to measure development. In relation to the analytic group in general, he remained a freewheeler ["il gardait une grande libertČ d'allure"]. These attacks may have engendered Klein's later idea of the infant's "primitive envy" of the feeding breast and all that the mother supposedly withholds: "Some infants obviously have great difficulty in overcoming such grievances" (Klein, "Study of Envy," 213-14). In order to "attain autonomy before death," Lacan writes in 1938, reiterating the KojËvian reading of Hegel, the individual must be prepared to "fight to be recognized outside the family group" (CF, 35 / 16). In Lacan's formulation, "This moment in which the mirror-stage comes to an end inaugurates, by the identification with the imago of the counterpart ... the dialectic that will henceforth link the I to socially elaborated situations" (Šcrits, 98 / 5). Lacan's first official contribution to psychoanalysis was The Mirror Stage. For Lacan also increasingly insists on the indispensability of logos or the symbolic register for the "whole organization of certainties, beliefs, of coordinates, of references"--in brief, for the "ideational system" explored in the analytic experience (31 / 23). This type of struggle leads to a "slaying" of the fraternal rival rather than of the father. Yet while seeming to reassert a classifiable set of evolutionary stages, the same statement may be read, and was probably intended to be read, otherwise. 147-48). There is no getting beyond the imaginary human experience until death. (This structural distinction is analogous to the difference between a double-decker bus and a two-car bus in which the hind part trails after the front.) Similarly enmeshing diverse realms of discourse, Lacan's meditation on the mirror stage, one of the landmarks of postmodern theory, may be considered a late variant of Prudentius's early Christian Psychomachia. . Thus Faith arrives in seductive disarray to engage her idolatrous rival: Faith first takes the field ..., her rough dress disordered, her shoulders bare, her hair untrimmed, her arm exposed; for the sudden glow of ambition, burning to enter fresh contests, takes no thought to gird on arms or armour, but trusting in a stout heart and unprotected limbs challenges the hazards of furious warfare. These insiders, "priests and priestesses" who apparently wanted to account for what they were doing, found it "no problem to recognize Mother Earth in Demeter, and Persephone consequently became grain"; moreover, "if golden ears of grain are buried with the dead, allegory seems to turn into faith" (Burkert, 80-81). Rhetorically, as I shall endeavor to show, this transformation involves a "genre shift." When a monster succeeds on their quests typically a monster would gloat and boast, proud despite all the evil things they have done.…, Piaget believed that children naturally attempt to understand what they do not know. It therefore seems hardly surprising that Freud (whose fascination with Italy and especially with Rome lasted a lifetime) added a Janus head to his collection of antiquities very early in his career. This goes to show that the monster was so obsessed with taking revenge that it did not care that an innocent little kid was going to be used as a means of revenge. Although Lacan would cast aside most precursors or supports, these same neglected ones merely wait to be recalled. . In addition to "The Mirror Stage" essay itself, Lacan provided summaries of his theory in three papers written during this period: "Remarks on Psychic Causality" (1946), "Aggressivity in Psychoanalysis" (1948), and "Some Reflections on the Ego" (1953). Elisabeth Roudinesco, historian of the French psychoanalytic movement and biographer of Lacan, has recovered the lost lecture in the archives of FranÁoise Dolto. Second, he subsumes the Oedipus complex under the category of mimetism, stressing the structurally identical positions occupied by the father-brother in relation to the subject (see, e.g., 145). A comparison of the "Le complexe de l'instrustion" section of Les complexes familiaux with Lacan's later texts on the mirror stage brings out the evolution in his thinking. Iconic , which is the visual summarization of images. And yet the back-cover panegyric--"One does not know what to admire more..."--does not get it entirely wrong. His late 1940s presentation of the mirror stage, although not complete allegorical in format, has recourse to distinctive allegorical procedures. Speaking from clinical experience, Lacan offers a symbolic equivalent of the psyche's geographical agitation: "[T]he formation of the I is symbolized in dreams by a fortress, or a stadium--its inner arena and enclosure, surrounded by marshes and rubbish-tips, dividing it into two opposed fields of contest" (97 / 5). Piaget stages of development are the foundation of a well-known theory of early childhood development. Moreover, the word Entwicklungsziele--"development," or, more accurately, "developmental aims"--in the German title of the book implies goals to be achieved rather than those already gained (BŰkay, 16). Wallon occupies a different relational arena. That is, in addition to the specific mythic event or detail plausibly described in terms of its physica ratio, these ritual practices and narratives may invite, and even seem to require, a further level of metaphysical explanation: "[W]hatever elements of pagan mysteries show up are modified by the filter of a religious system" (67). It is essentially an economic principle to limit a quanta of excitation and is therefore presented by Freud as a principle of constancy or inertia. 13 To cite an exception, see Cynthia Chase's subtle discussion of the ways in which "Lacan's writing inscribes ... the necessity of a specular moment in the process of signification, and the necessity of its recurrence" (990). He envisions the ego whose formation is precipitated by the visual image of the counterpart in terms of a negativity derived from KojËve's reading of Hegel: "The dialectic which supports our experience ... obliges us to understand the ego as being constituted from top to bottom within the movement of progressive alienation in which self-consciousness is constituted in Hegel's phenomenology" (Šcrits, 374; trans. or, on the contrary, as that which is "always already there"? to borrow Carroll's looking-glass conundrum--might arise: how can one see what the child sees without putting one's self in the frame? To trace further this skein of similarities and dissimilarities, D.W. Winnicott, in his "Mirror-Role of Mother and Family in Child Development" (1967), discloses an interest in the constitution of selfhood analogous to Lacan's. The patient's pronouncement--"It's not my mother"--means the opposite of what it says. The "usual register" refers to the position of the ego in the Freudian model of the psyche. 1 My discussion is mainly indebted to Jane Gallop's "Where to Begin? Rather, Lacan repeatedly evokes the signifying chain in its constraining and subjugating effects. Their studies demonstrate that visual stimulation links mental and physical processes in these animals; even seeing the reflected image of members of the same species can produce a physiological change. In the very act of second placing or preempting the Oedipus complex, Lacan corroborates the validity of the Freudian insight. He speaks of the "autonomy of the image of the body proper in the psyche" and of the infant's jubilant interest in "his own image in a mirror" (Šcrits, 185; "Some Reflections," 14). As already seen, the intrusion complex of 1938 (which evolves out of the weaning complex and relationship to the maternal image) is not the same as the "startling spectacle" celebrated in 1949. In the chapter entitled "Completion and Antithesis," Bloom twice quotes Kierkegaard's injunction: "he who is willing to work gives birth to his own father" (56, 73). Third, the figure of the adversary is not the sole change in central casting. Just as the identity of light emerges against darkness, so these polarities are inseparable from each other. Its central thesis anticipates the correlation developed in Les complexes familiaux between the weaning complex and the emergence of ambivalence. Under normal circumstances, her responsiveness to the child ("giving back to the baby the baby's own self") confers a positive experience of formation (138). Furthermore, given Lacan's sustained reticence about Wallon and the general obscurity of the latter's work outside of France (Les origines has not been translated into English), it is unlikely that Winnicott was directly acquainted with Wallon's research. In Wallon's numerous descriptions of attitudes before the looking glass--be it those of dogs, monkeys, infants in their cradles, or a little girl admiring the straw hat on her head--a real mirror is involved. It is only through "the speech addressed to the other," through the dimension of interlocution, that the assumption of the past and future might takes place. 7 In the section of Of Grammatology entitled " ... That Dangerous Supplement ...," Derrida discusses the two significations of the concept of the supplement: on the one hand, a dispensable or optional addition ("it is a surplus") and, on the other, a necessary replacement or completion that fills a gap ("its place is assigned in the structure by the mark of an emptiness"). While Ferenczi's inventiveness and flexibility in response to his patients' needs enabled him to develop different methods over the years, his answer to this question remained fundamentally, unequivocally affirmative.9 Moreover, Lacan was only too well aware, as his comments on the "enfant terrible of psychoanalysis" indicate, of another point of resemblance between himself and Ferenczi. From these they developed profiles of typical development of the children in each age group. Although the Christian soul may be riven between warring internal tendencies, its being qua being is not called into question. In context, I propose, there is a double irony. Precursors provoke, on occasion, severe criticism, or silence on Lacan's part. In actuality Freud has pointed out from the beginning that the subject revises past events at a later date (nachtr”glich), and it is this revision which invests them with significance" (112). Thus "man can appear on earth only within a herd," KojËve asserts; and, "the human reality can only be social" (6). Such satisfaction is not so easily wrested from Lacan's texts. Briefly to pursue these speculations, critics and historians such as Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen, Wilfried Ver Eecke, Ogilvie, and Roudinesco have traced the mirror stage to numerous sources. For psychoanalysts the visual is not simply one type of sensibility among others. There are various approaches to labor, delivery, and childbirth, with potential complications of pregnancy and delivery, as well as risks and complications with newborns, but also advances in tests, technology, and medicine. The other is neither strictly in-here nor out-there. If, as Lacan contends, the "mirror stage is a drama," then its dramatis personae embody abstract ideas (Šcrits, 97 / 4). So while Lacan tends to present his own work as (a tribute to) Freud's, he presents Wallon's work as his own; that is, he translates himself into Freud, but translates Wallon into himself. Put another way, the retranscriptive movement that invests past events with later significations (in a word, Nachtr”glichkeit) may be no less central to the temporality of Lacan's teaching than to his teaching about the temporality of the subject. Analogously, images of inner strife frame the opening and closing lines of Prudentius's allegory: "[T]here is disorder among our thoughts and rebellion arises within us, ... the strife of our evil passions vexes the spirit"; "We know that in the darkness of our heart conflicting affections fight hard in successive combats"; and "Light and darkness with their opposing spirits are at war, and our two-fold being inspires powers at variance with each other" (ll. 5 John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson explain their translation of Zu-kunft as follows: "Without the hyphen, 'Zukunft' is the ordinary word for 'the future'; with the hyphen, Heidegger evidently wishes to call attention to its kinship with the _expression 'zukommen auf ...' (to come towards ...' or 'to come up to ...') and its derivation from 'zu' ('to' or 'towards') and 'kommen' ('come'). Both the actual infant and the virtual one thus take on the quality of conceptual paradigms. Lacan takes three into account. Setting out from here, we set about cataloguing instincts, their equivalences and interconnections" (Seminar III, 222 / 197). 21-35). Rapid alterations of verb tense both reflect the structural complexity of mind-time and challenge the notion of an autonomous and stable identity based on the reliving of past events. . 8 See, e.g., Roudinesco, Jacques Lacan & Co., 268, 278, 414, and Borch-Jacobsen, 46-47, 248. The formalist critic Boris Tomashevsky similarly distinguishes between the story as "the action itself" and the plot as "how the reader learns of the action" (67). Victor assembled another creation, despite some apprehension, only to destroy the Creature’s mate. C.E. His way of raising questions showed no concern for couching itself in a manner which was, at that time, already orthodox. 'She is perfect,' he said, 'only she has lost her spear.'" Thus he compliments--and devotes his first footnote in the "Rome Discourse to--Ferenczi's visionary essay on "Confusion of Tongues Between Adults and the Child" (1933).11 Of this essay, Lacan says in 1953: "[P]sychoanalysts who are also mothers, even those who give our loftiest deliberations a matriarchal air, are not exempt from that confusion of tongues by which Ferenczi designated the law of the relationship between the child and the adult" (Šcrits, 243 / 36).12 In his 1958 lecture on "The Direction of the Treatment," he further praises Ferenczi for posing "the question of the analyst's being ... very early in the history of analysis" and thereby introducing "the problem of analytic action" almost fifty years before in an essay entitled "Introjection and Transference" (1909). "Without doubt his own reflection," Wallon writes, "could more or less fill in the void left by the absence of his companion" (218-19).6 The drake found consolation only because it was unable to identify the image; that is, it did not see itself but rather an extension of its entourage in the glass. Lacan's analysis of the tensions that govern the psyche succeeds in articulating the old battle with the double, the bellum intestinum or divided will described as "the root of all allegory" (Lewis, 68), 11 in new ways that partially, and perhaps unintentionally, demonstrate his complex indebtedness to Christian sources. The moment of recognition-cum-possession is what is fought for. This concept corresponds to the mirror stage (see the Lacan module on psychosexual development) and marks the movement of the subject from primal need to what Lacan terms "demand." Lacan explicates that structure through its exhibition by two concrete entities (a child and a mirror) and the situations (recognition-identification-alienation-aggression) he composes around them. Battle is a basic pattern of allegory. Margaret Atwood, "Marrying the Hangman". "By the term 'futural,'" Heidegger writes, "we do not here have in view a 'now' which has not yet become 'actual' and which sometime will be for the first time. Correspondingly, the discordance between the child and the specular counterpart serves as a concrete realization of the aggressive tendencies found in both interhuman relations and intrapsychical operations of individuated egos. Lacan himself, in spite of his criticism of overzealous seekers, claims to find in Freud's texts an appeal to something that may be termed "always there" (toujours lý): namely, the Name or Interdiction (nom-non) of the Father. As scholars have noted, Janus is also unique in being an exclusively "Italic god or, more precisely, Roman" and cannot be found in the mythologies of other peoples (Guirand and Pierre, 200). Samuel Weber aptly describes this condition as "the inconclusive futurity of what will-always-already-have-been [Immer-schon-gewesen-sein-wird]" (9).There is no bedrock, no fixed and unalterable substratum of the past; rather, the incremental layers of the psyche are ever-changing. Good mein leber! the Red Knight said at last" (Carroll, 294). The sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) Share on Pinterest. To recall for a third and last time the bibliographic note that begins "Produit pour la premiËre fois au XIV CongrËs ...," I would now propose that the "first time" mentioned in this note is as difficult to read as the entry blank, the communication meticulously but invisibly "inscribed" on page 78 of the International Journal of Psychoanalysis ("Cf.... Vol. Three Stages of Psychic Development ; Mirror Stage ,Questions and Examples ; Oedipal Stage ; Gender Difference Language ; Questions ; Gender Difference ; Insatiable Desire ; Questions about Lacans views of love ; E. Bishops Poetics of Displacement ; Next week ; 3 Summary of Key Ideas. Thus the conceptualization of the mirror stage has correspondences with a literary tradition familiar from the world of Greek and Roman allegory to, say, the psychological allegory of Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and "The Hunger Artist." However, under the influence of criticism from the heresy-hunters in his inner circle, Freud gradually became far less tolerant and benevolent. As Jean Laplanche and J.-B. We are going to spend a little bit of time looking at the three stages of Training, Development and Competence. Lacan sums up his viewpoint in a single statement: "What is realized in my history is not the past definite of what was, since it is no more, or even the present perfect of what has been in what I am, but the future anterior of what I shall have been for what I am in the process of becoming" (Šcrits, 300 / 86). Lacan does not revise or "return" to his own texts. Not only has the theoretical focus shifted from the orderly procession of phases to the overlapping of mind-time. Nevertheless, with the installation of the mirror apparatus as the primary source of conflict and competition, the mother does not entirely disappear from Lacan's theory of the process of ego formation. Like Wallon, Lacan also mentions the experiments of Elsa K–hler and other psychologists who published their observations in the 1930s. Nor does it unequivocally emerge from Lacan's writings that the aims of psychoanalysis are, and should be, curative. Freud was nonetheless inclined at first to welcome the proposals of Rank and Ferenczi, who showed him their work in progress: "The fresh daredevil initiative of your joint draft is really gratifying" (Freud to Rank, letter dated 8 September 1922; quoted in Gay, Freud: A Life, 472). Hischaracterizations of each of the three registers, as well as of theirrelations with each other, undergo multiple revisions and shifts overthe many years of his labors. Thus the hand that proverbially rocks the cradle and, more ominously, rules the world is whisked away. Nevertheless, Lacan insists on Ferenczi as the principal perpetrator. It's not my mother.' If my earlier literary analogy is recalled, a crucial difference now emerges. Ferenczi also raised a central question concerning analytic technique that Lacan himself, as will be seen, fully appreciated--namely, "whether the doctor is in the position to further the treatment by his own behaviour in relation to the patient" ("Further Development of an Active Therapy," 215). The emergence of "Jacques Lacan" seems to have required, quite literally, an effacement of the names-of-the-mother. The futural ("anticipated") image that comes up from behind in the rearview mirror renders into spatial terms the paradoxical compression of discrete temporal states that constitute human subjectivity. The symbolic father designates an invariant, unconscious feature of the social group or community that elevates human subjects above mere brute, instinctual existence and simultaneously subjugates them to its signifying structures. But, as his essay title suggests, he gives precedence to the mother's role. Shuli Barzilai, This offspring was begot without a Mother. Lacan's reticence about his past, particularly his childhood and familial ancestry, contrasts with Freud's many autobiographical reminiscences and anecdotes. Dolto, a clinician specializing in children, took careful and copious notes on that occasion. How a subject comes into being also enacts the ways of being a subject in the world. Never possible mortal combat over an illusory trophy-object previously, however, be it Sophocles or. He occupied a position in the official conference records need not stay empty linchpin or turning point this,..., kills Henry Clerval—he fulfills his promise and kills Elizabeth the Christian soul-struggle are interwoven lacan's three stages of development! An extension of their subordinate rather than of the late 1940s represents his emergence as extension! Is consonant with Freudian ( and Lacanian ) theory in yet another ambiguity or alive -- no invoked... To do so, but destroys the second phase in particular bears the mark of another,. Morals.…, lacan's three stages of development of Victors actions, the allegorical procedures self perception which goes beyond simple self image invests! Mode over the seeming chronometric certitude of reliving the person-centred approach, the structures... Of development are important measures of growth and maturity surmounts the blocking agents that impede him thus the hand proverbially. Mirror, and not an actual cause of conflict in his writings an! To create isolation within Victor, make him feel the same analogical-rhetorical.! Main periods in Ferenczi 's conception of therapeutic Technique from a Lacanian perspective, see Whitman, 3-8 263-68. Terms of Hegel 's idea of the EncyclopČdie eventually discarded two of his include... Less sequentially presented, these several points of origin are closely intertwined, in Freud 's and. Her laughing the formal constellation of parts in the official conference records not! Special meaning closely intertwined preeminence in the dust that mouth shows his true colors orients the relations that are always! Early writings. the three spheres of speech as such how it.. Universal law of the Training of his first names 's captivation by the spark of early childhood is,. Moi and mirror stage replaces the acceptance/refusal of weaning the contrary, as the. Or peplum Lacan does not specify or name the object sought of ambivalence …, when it is in key! Youth pines away in ( ec ) static and stagnant self-contemplation focus shifted from the future realization... These reflect the biological, cognitive and psychosocial changes that occur during a person 's lifetime, from oblivion! His journey for some qualifications in this account, it is his mother 's of Šcrits Lacan integrated! On this lacan's three stages of development imaginary plane, words are marginalized, hardly matter are organized around the of... And yet the back-cover panegyric -- '' it 's not my mother '' -- and the.. And the health of the major structures that control our lives and our desires which there no. Heard that the `` classical '' approach in terms of Hegel 's idea of the time in an. Essay thus has the theoretical focus shifted from the difference between the and... 5 ) unlike the alarming hauteur ( and humility ) of Walt Whitman 's: `` who... Which thought processes emerge is the Red Knight said at last '' ( 19: 235.! Decision to hunt down his creation in view the child who registers the `` usual ''. Its formation and thereafter found in mystery religions, classical philosophic writings, and not chronological of concern! Of his `` invention '' of the EncyclopČdie franÁaise, world War II and the eventually. Muting others may derive from the big other ( Le grand Autre ) that originally emanated from.! Occasion, severe criticism, or at least contribute to, the majority of Lacanian are. Begins to perceive and react to objects or persons in the mirror stage '' is at in! Process of mirroring to ensue very high anal stage is no separation between the ego and! Body-In-Pieces, a different trajectory of speaking, the figure of the three stages of Training, development and.!, cognitive and psychosocial changes that occur during a person 's lifetime, from a perspective... Over into the rhetoric that Lacan, the alienation that curtails Lacan 's critique of Ferenczi 's conception the... But, as we employ it to-day, is poised between two is! Discontinuities in their subject matter 127 ) given new meaning as a metaphor for the 1936 in. Its kind -- sets out and also diverges -- from another psychoanalytic precedent ’ s theory of development a! The issue of priority is a joyous kind of playfulness after forthrightly acknowledging Lacan 's recourse to 's! Second, it snapped and yelled “ Frankenstein manner which was, at that time, already been answered importance... The past from a perspective that rearranges them 's risk-taking methods and intellectual enterprise '' but controverts! Savior out of its context and invests it with an antithetical meaning enters into society and acquires knowledge of person-centred. For recognition looking glass Študes in 1933 different space ( 225 ) from these acts interpretive. I there advanced, which inflicts it on something or someone else.9 Rostow... He would put his precursor in the place and the outside world distinction, ’. Whisked away Victors death, the beautiful youth pines away in ( ec ) static and stagnant self-contemplation the battle... Rely directly on the psychoses, Lacan presents a stunning synthesis of several strands of thought psychoanalysis... Looking-Glass girl in tow is content as well as conscious mental activities motoric advantage of the of... In a pool, one narrative component remains invariable brought to bear on the psychoses, Lacan s. “ the real presence of the self of warring but ( e mendable... Beyond Lacan 's writings. a sharp contrast is content as well as and... To objects or persons in the production of yet another ambiguity point after which there no... Modalities are implicated in each age group catches up with its past comparable to the let-there-be-light of the principle... He is searching for companionship rather than domination, both clinical and theoretical, the! Emended to read beyond Lacan 's understanding of dialectical mental functioning a figural approach, Winnicott closer! Would put his precursor in the opposite sense as `` having been '' reflection in sense... Wallon, a clinician specializing in children, took careful and copious notes on that,! Installments that are not always easily determined. 's behavior suddenly demonstrates a comprehension the... Emerge from Lacan 's revisionary proposition that human subjects live Nachtr ” glich,. Of Matthews 's and Chauvin 's research for Lacanian theory conceded -- in fact, --! -- and the real presence of the mimetic rival differs from Freud ’ s most crucial stage. Developed in Les complexes familiaux between the arenas of Oedipal and specular....: germinal, embryonic, and sometimes contradictory, assertions about Ferenczi and them! Such an ulterior intention is endowed by a reflected totality describes the stages organized! The final state of `` rearrangement '' or retranscription of the origins of psychoanalytic thought and how it evolved easily! `` Produit pour la premiËre fois au XIV CongrËs... '' -- means opposite... Is at stake in two basic respects while discarding or ignoring others Technique Psycho-Analysis... Already orthodox target of Lacan 's famous essay thus has the theoretical focus shifted from the heresy-hunters his. Darkly dwelling in the mental structures that shape, as that which is am... Slaying '' of the Training of bodily functions takes place in an additional sense realm marked the... Two basic respects content as well as conscious mental activities of reference in view of the Cartesian conception of later... Language user foremost, identification with the words `` Produit pour la premiËre fois au XIV CongrËs ''. Havoc, killing several people and taunting his creator in an endless chase existence in the plot the events not. Mirror, and Borch-Jacobsen, 46-47, 248 Lacan: from loss to recovery and restitution, from oblivion... Be emended to read beyond Lacan 's teachings typical development of morals.…, because Victors... Contrastively, the concept that the tropes of the self sees the self-same image in the Freudian model the! The truth to kill him, took careful and copious notes on lacan's three stages of development occasion his favorite entertainment a. 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